Pakistan is an Islamic republic with its capital at Islamabad. It has four provinces: Balochistan, North West Frontier Province (NWFP), Punjab and Sindh. Their respective capitals are Quetta, Peshawar, Lahore and Karachi. In addition to provinces, are the Federal Administered Northern Areas (F.A.N.A) and Federal Administered Tribal Areas (F.A.T.A). Pakistan has a federal structure. Parliament consists of National Assembly and the Senate. Members of the National Assembly are directly elected on the adult franchise base and there term of office is five years. The National Assembly determines the major policy issue and passes annual budget and legislation. It elects the Prime Minister from among its members. The Prime Minister forms his / her cabinet from among members of the Assembly and Senate. Provinces have their own elected legislative Assemblies and Chief Ministers. Majority of the members, of the upper house are elected by the Provincial Assemblies.
Pakistan is situated between latitude 24 and 37 degrees north and longitude 62 and 75 degrees east. The country borders Iran on the west, India in the east, Afghanistan in the north-west, China in the north and Arabian sea on the south. The great mountain ranges of the Himalayas, the Karakorams and the Hindukush form Pakistan's northern highlands of the north-west frontier province and the Northern Area; Punjab province is a flat, alluvial plain with five major rivers dominating the upper region eventually joining the Indus river flowing south to the Arabian sea; Sindh is bounded on the east by the Thar desert and the Rann of Kutch and on the west by the Kithara range; the Balochistan plateau is an arid tableland, encircled by dry mountains.

POPULATION (1998 Census):
Total population : 130.58 million, Growth Rate : 2.61% per annum.
Density : 164 person / Sq.kms
Sex Ratio : 108 males to 100 females

8,03,940 (including FATA and FANA).

Pakistan has well defined seasons; Winter (December - February), Spring (March - April), Summer (May - September) and Autumn (October - November).
During summer in central and southern parts of the country, the temperature may go as high as 45oC. However, the northern regions have very pleasant weather during summers. Between July and August, the season brings an average 38-51cm of rain to plains and 152-203cm in lower Himalayan valleys of Murree, Kaghan, Swat and Azad Kashmir.

Muslim (97%), Hindu (1.5%), Christian (1%) and several other minorities.

National language : URDU
Official language : ENGLISH
Main Regional Languages : Sindhi, Balochi, Punjabi and Pashto.

Basic unit of currency is Rupee which divides into 100 paisa.
Currency notes of 1, 2, 5, 10, 50, 100,. 500 and 1000 rupees are in use.

American Express is the most widely accepted card. Master card and Visa are also good.
Dinner club and other cards have more limited use.

Generally accepted at most banks, four & five star hotels and major shops.To avoid additional exchange rate charges, travelers are advised to take travelers check in US Dollars or Pounds Sterling.

 220 V, 50 Hz AC.

Pakistan Standard Time is GMT plus 5 hours. It gets dark at about 05:00pm in winter and at 07:30pm in summer.

All traffic in Pakistan runs on the left side. International or own national license is valid. Cars must be insured and registered. Minimum age for driving is 18 years. Speed limit is 65 km/h at most roads and 120 km/h on Motorways.

Tourists are advised to take insurance against accidents, thefts etc. from the country of origin. There are many insurance companies in Pakistan's major cities who also offer such services.

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